Bloodborne Pathogens are bacteria and viruses present in blood and body fluids that can cause disease in humans.
Diseases of primary concern are Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV.
Bloodbone pathogens are spread through direct contact, indirect contact, droplet transmission and vector-borne transmission.
- Direct contact occurs when infected blood or body fluids from one
person enter another person’s body at a correct entry site.
Indirect contact occurs when a person touches an object that contains
the blood or body fluid of an infected person, and that infected blood
or body fluid enters the body at a correct entry site.
Droplet transmission occurs when a person inhales droplets from an
infected person’s cough or sneeze.
Vector-borne transmission occurs when the body’s skin is penetrated
by an infectious source.
Four conditions must be met for transmission:
- A pathogen is present.
There is enough of the pathogen present to cause disease.
A person is susceptible to the pathogen.
The pathogen passes through the correct entry site.
Remember this is all preventable:
Universal precautions and standard precautions:
Standard precautions you should take while providing care include:
- Avoiding contact with blood and other body fluids.
Using personal protective equipment, such as disposable gloves, protective eyewear, protective footwear, gowns and breathing barriers.
Using safer equipment such as self-sheathing needles, needleless systems or sharps with engineered sharps protection.
Placing sharps in proper containers.
Cleaning and disinfecting all possibly contaminated work surfaces and equipment after each use.
Avoiding touching your eyes, mouth and nose while providing care or when exposure to infectious materials is possible.
Avoid eating drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics or lip balm, or handling contact lenses while providing care or when exposure to infectious materials is possible.
Thoroughly washing your hands with soap and warm water or other
disinfectant products immediately after providing care, even if you
are using disposable gloves.
Use alcohol based rubs where handwashing facilities are not available.
Remove/dispose of soiled protective clothing as soon as possible.
Disposing of contaminated materials in appropriate receptacles.
Exposure incidents involve contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials.
If there is an exposure:
- Clean the area of contact.
Write down what happened.
Notify your supervisor.
Immediately seek medical attention.
Follow your facility’s post-exposure policies and procedures.
Info on proper handwashing is at: https://members.kaiserpermanente.org/kpweb/healthency.do?hwid=tv7076spec
The latest on bloodborne pathogens is at: http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/bloodbornepathogens/index.html
Generally, the vaccinations you got as a child will protect you the rest of your life, with a few exceptions. An adult recommended vaccinations schedule is at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html
Simple secondary survey study sheet
more details of the SAMPLE questions
Times to suspect a spinal injury: (and use a jaw thrust instead of a head tilt, chin lift).
Reasons why a person might become unconscious or semi-conscious (AEIOU TIPS)
causes of altered mental status, fainting, seizures,
Signs and symptoms of a concussion
care for a stroke
normal respiration, pulse, temperature
and a detailed simple secondary survey (SAMPLE, opqrst)