This is not the complete outline for the textbook, but is a compilation of things I especially noticed with a few notes of my own mixed in.
In the definition of Wellness, they include not only Physical, Emotional and Intellectual wellness, but also
Environmental, or Planetary, Wellness
a. Environmental, or planetary, wellness reflects the fact that personal health depends on the health of the planet.
b. Wellness requires learning about and protecting yourself from environmental hazards such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution, and violence.
A hundred years ago common infectious diseases and poor environmental conditions were what shortened people’s lives.
Our life expectancy has increased, due to medical advances and improved environmental conditions, but chronic diseases have emerged as the major threat to health, and the three leading causes of death in the United States today are heart disease, cancer, and stroke, all of which are to a large degree preventable. The best treatment for these chronic diseases is prevention, especially better fitness.
From Red Cross first aid, the basic ways to identify a stroke:
To care for a victim of stroke, think FAST.
Face – weakness on one side of the face
Arm – weakness or numbness in one arm
Speech – slurred speech or trouble speaking
Time – If they have these symptoms, it’s time to summon EMS personnel (call 911) if any of the above are seen and note the time the signs and symptoms began. There are drugs, which if given promptly, can reverse the effects of some strokes.
See more details at this final exam question from the HLTH57A Red Cross First Aid class:
If you suspect a stroke, a question on the HLTH 57A final exam.
The keys to making change include:
- 1. Examining Your Current Health Habits.
An observation from a friend or family member or a landmark event such as the death of someone close to you can get you thinking about behavior change.
- 2. Choosing a Target Behavior
(just one behavior at a time, not quitting smoking while trying to lose weight).
- 3. Obtaining Information About Your Target Behavior.
Educate your self as to the short-term and long-term drawbacks.
- 4. Find Outside Help as needed.
Some challenging target behaviors, such as binge eating/drinking, addiction or depression may require outside help.
You can start by Enhancing Your Readiness to Change
Identify your current stage in the transtheoretical “stages of change” model.
- 1. Precontemplation: No intention of changing behavior.
- 2. Contemplation: Intending to take action within 6 months.
- 3. Preparation: Planning to take action within a month.
- 4. Action: Outwardly changing behavior.
- 5. Maintenance: Successful behavior change for 6 months or more.
- 6. Termination: whew! But you need to plan ahead for potential lapses, either to prevent them or learn enough from them that you can be successful the next try.
A well-developed plan sets goals, anticipates problems, and includes rewards.
1. Monitor Your Behavior and Gather Data
Keep careful records of the behavior you want to change.
2. Analyze the Data and Identify Patterns
What events or times trigger the unhealthy behavior?
3. Set Realistic, Specific Goals
Break the ultimate goal down to a few small steps.
4. Devise a Strategy or Plan of Action
Develop techniques that will support your daily efforts at behavior change. Ask others what tricks worked when they quit smoking.
a. Obtain Information and Supplies
Identify resources, such as books, courses or clubs, that can help you practice the new behavior.
b. Modify Your Environment
Avoid the cues that trigger the unhealthy behavior and create cues that trigger the new behavior.
c. Reward Yourself
Plan rewards for reaching subgoals in your plan.
d. Involve the People Around You
Tell family, friends, classmates about your plan and ask for their support. Just saying it out loud in public can help make you stick with it.
e. Plan Ahead for Challenging Situations
Identify the people or situations that could derail your plan and develop coping mechanisms.
5. Make a Personal Contract
A serious personal contract can motivate you to follow through on your plan.
(I have been proud to accept the last cigarette pack from students of mine who smoked.)
The text continues with a Sample Behavior Change Plan, Staying with It, and the advice that you consider your wellness a lifelong goal, and continue to be informed and assess and improve your health behaviors.
The text stresses that people of all ages can get benefits from exercise and physical activity.
More physical activity equals more benefits. (45 to 60 or more minutes per day of physical activity for people who need to lose weight and maintain weight loss)
You should include a moderate amount of physical activity on most days of the week. In the ‘how much is enough’ section it says that any amount of extra activity is healthier.
Progressive overload is the principle that when the amount of exercise is progressively increased, your fitness continues to improve. Your body will adapt to exercise by improving its function. Do more and fitness will improve more. Too little may improve your health but not your fitness. Too much and you can get injured.
The FITT principle spells out the four dimensions of the amount of overload needed:
Frequency: how often (regular rather than too much only occasionally)
Intensity: how hard,
…Different experts have different opinions about the appropriate intensity (moderate vs. high) and duration (continuous vs. intermittent) of exercise, but they all agree that low intensity, while better than a sedentary lifestyle, won’t improve physical fitness. They also agree that too much overload can cause injuries and even immune system problems.
Time: how long, (for cardiorespiratory endurance (CRE) exercise, 20 minutes to an hour is recommended, in one session a day or even in multiple periods of ten minutes at a time.
and Type: the type of activity. (Strength training at least two days a week, cardiorespiratory-endurance (CRE) for most people 3 to 5 days a week amd moderate -intensity 5 or more days a week.)
Chapter 2 then discusses health related components of physical fitness, Cardiorespiratory Endurance (CRE) , Muscular Strength, Muscular Endurance, Flexibility, Body Composition, and Skill-Related Components of Fitnesss, such as speed, power, agility, balance, coordination, and reaction time.
It covers various other training principles, such as
specificity (to be a better swimmer you must swim).
The benefits of fitness are reversible. When you stop exercising, up to 50 percent of fitness improvements are lost within only 2 months.
Individual Differences / Limits on Adaptability
1. There are large differences in our ability to improve fitness and perform skills.
2. Some of our ability is genetically predetermined, but for the average individual, adaptability is enough to achieve fitness goals.
3. Physical training improves fitness regardless of heredity
There is a section on Designing Your Own Exercise Program, assessing your current level of fitness , setting goals and choosing activities for a balanced program.
No time to get fit? See: Sneaking exercise for alternative, new, fun ideas for activity ways to get in a little more activity without actually spending more time. (Some of these were invented by my students!)
Here is a summary of the Guidelines for Training:
1. Train the way you want your body to change. Exercise according to what you want to accomplish: for greater strength, lift weights; for more flexibility, stretch. To be a better swimmer, swim.
2. Train regularly. Consistency is the key to improving fitness.
3. Get in shape gradually. Increase duration and frequency before increasing intensity. Progressing gradually will help you avoid injury and overtraining. Overdo any new program, whether it be trying multiple laps of butterfly when you are first trying to learn it, or getting carried away with new abs exercises and you will cause pain, possibly injuries and almost guarantee that you will want to stop working.
4. Warm up before exercise and cool down afterward. Warming up and stretching helps the body adjust to exercise and decreases the likelihood of injury.
5. Cooling down restores circulation to its normal level, back from your muscles to your heart and brain so you won’t feel faint.
6. Exercise safely. Never swim alone. Walk or run with partners. Stay out of the way of cars. Use good-quality equipment and protective gear. Don’t exercise outdoors during a smog alert. Don’t jog right next to a stop and go roadway with smog spewing vehicles.
7. Listen to your body. ‘No pain, no gain’ is balderdash. Although you should maintain a structured, consistent workout program, don’t exercise if it doesn’t feel right. (But if your body always says to rest, you won’t make progress.)
8. Cycle the volume and intensity of your workouts. Some days train very intensely and other days train more lightly. Increase intensity no more than 10% a week.
9. Try training with a partner. If someone is expecting you to get out of bed, put down that novel, or turn off the TV and go for a walk, you might be more committed.
10. Train your mind. Be committed, disciplined, patient, and positive about yourself and your goals.
11. Feed your body those carbs it needs.
12. Add variety and have fun. Few people can just swim laps by themselves in the same pool week after week. Sneaking exercise for alternative, new, fun ideas for activity.
Some suggestions invented by De Anza swim class students (not all of then serious) at Sneaking exercise
“Chase squirrels with your dog, it’s surprisingly fun. The average urban park squirrel could use more exercise, so it’s good for all of you. Alas, people look at you funny if you don’t have a dog.
Walk your neighbor’s dog, especially if she’s cute. Tell her it’s a homework assignment from your class.
Hang a picture of your boss at work and throw darts at it. Have competitions with other employees.”
Tease big guys was the original entry. Then students thought of more along the same line. They are, of course, not all recommended.
“Tease really big guys hot girlfriends.
While on a walk, tease the neighbor’s dog so it will chase after you.
Tell strangers who smoke to stop smoking. If they look angry, RUN.
Flirt with the daughter of a possessive, overly-protective big game hunter or professional wrestler.
Annoy your little brother or sister until they get so angry they want to slap you and make them chase after you.
Swat at a bee hive.
Hike up the mountain with your skis instead of buying a lift ticket”
One student winter quarter 2004 came up with these three new ideas:
- “Kiss girls then make them chase you.
- Ring the doorbell of your neighbor and sprint away. After a couple of times he’ll chase you and you get a bonus workout.
- Hide dogsy treats in your clothes and make your dog chase you.”
13. Track your progress. Time yourself regularly and see how much faster you are getting. Try longer swims and see how much more endurance you have.
14. Keep your exercise program in perspective. Don’t neglect the rest of your life. The text warns that training should not consume all of your time and energy.
Chapter 3: Cardiorespiratory Endurance
The text says that after reading this chapter, you should be able to:
“· Describe how the body produces the energy it needs for exercise.
· List the major effects and benefits of cardiorespiratory endurance exercise.
· Explain how cardiorespiratory endurance is measured and assessed.
· Describe how frequency, intensity, time (duration), and type of exercise affect the development of cardiorespiratory endurance.
· Explain the best ways to prevent and treat common exercise injuries. “
I’m not going to try to outline the whole chapter here.
I did note the section on ‘exercise and the mind’ on page 68. Regular physical activity has these effects:
reduced anxiety, reduced depression and improved mood, improved sleep, reduced stress, enhanced self-esteem, self confidence and self-efficacy, enhanced creativity and intellectual functioning, improved work productivity, and increased opportunities for social interaction.
Exercise releases endorphins, which not only make you feel good while you are exercising, the euphoria many people seek through exercise, they also may suppress fatigue and decrease pain. It gives you an outlet for stress, anger and hostility.
This chapter is the place to find the chart with your target heart rate zone and the one mile / 1 1/2 mile run/walk to test your cardiorespiratory capacity and endurance.
Fluid intake: “drink at least two cups (16 ounces) of fluid 2 hours before exercise and then drink enough during exercise to match fluid loss through sweating. Drink at least 1 cup of fluid for every 20-30 minutes of exercise, more in hot weather or if you sweat heavily.” Drink lots even when you are swimming and don’t notice how much you sweat. Dehydration increases body temperature and decreases sweat rate, plasma volume, cardiac output, maximal oxygen consumption, exercise capacity, muscular strength, and stores of liver glycogen.
Heat exhaustion symptoms include headache; cool, moist, pale, or ashen skin; nausea, exhaustion, faintness, profuse sweating , and, in some cases psychological disorientation; core body temperature may be normal or slightly elevated.
Heat exhaustion can progress quickly to heat stroke, which is a major medical emergency involving the failure of the brain’s temperature regulatory center. Symptoms include red, hot skin; rapid, weak pulse;
rapid, shallow breathing; convulsions and progressive loss of consciousness. Your temperature can hit 105 degrees.
Care for Heat Exposure
Remove victim from hot environment
Give small amounts of cool water to conscious victim
Have victim lie down in a cool or shady area and elevate legs if possible
Loosen or remove clothing
Apply cool, wet towels or cold packs to wrists, armpits, groin, and legs
Factors Affecting Normal Body Temperature
Intensity of activity
Body’s ability to adapt (physical fitness level)
Those at Greatest Risk for Cold Exposure
Young children and elderly
Those without adequate equipment, clothing, or training for cold environment
Those with health problems
Those using illicit drugs, medications, or alcohol
Signs and Symptoms of Hypothermia (when your core body temp is low)
Decreasing level of consciousness
Care for Hypothermia
Summon more advanced medical personnel
Handle victim gently
Remove victim from cold environment
Have victim stop all activity and rest
Remove wet clothing
Place victim in dry blankets or clothing and wrap in plastic if available
Protect from any further heat loss
The RICE definition mentioned in the text is not used by the Red Cross anymore. Now we say:
Treatment for closed soft tissue injuries
Rest to allow clots to form. Do not move or straighten the area
Cold: apply plastic bag of ice (with a thin barrier between the ice and skin) 20 minutes every 2-4 hours (sometimes more often)
Elevate above heart level unless it causes more pain
Learn more about first aid in Health 57A the First Aid in the Workplace, Community and Wilderness class offered at De Anza almost every quarter.
Aspirin can relieve inflammation and it can increase bleeding, for example, internal bleeding (bruising).
Chapter Four is the weight training chapter including exercises you can do at home without expensive equipment.
Anyone can benefit from training with weights to build strength and endurance. The more muscle mass you have the higher metabolic rate you have. You can keep burning calories for hours after a training session.
Women might not be able to lift as much weight as men, but they have the same capacity to gain strength as men. Women will not develop big muscles like men do unless they train intensely for many years or take dangerous anabolic steroids.
Some of the material in Appendix 6 (12 edition) about first aid for choking is incomplete, leaving out, for example, how and when to get consent. Please do take a full class, such as De Anza HLTH57A.
For a review, or before you take a hands-only CPR class: