In the NPS photo of a Yellowstone wildlife montage by Robert Hynes, you can compare the difference in size / heights of various animals / birds we may see on the Outdoor Club trips to Grand Teton National Park.
And in a drawing (not to quite the same scale) of (left to right) a deer, elk, moose and a man you can compare the difference in size / height of various mammals versus a human.
The elk (5 foot tall) compares in size to a horse.
Yellowstone park notes:
“Antlers are usually symmetrical and occur on males and, only rarely, females.
•The average, healthy, mature bull has six tines on each antler, and is known in some parts of the US as a “ six point ” or “ six by six. ”
•One-year-old bulls grow 10–20-inch spikes, sometimes forked.
•Two-year-old bulls usually have slender antlers with four to five points.
•Three-year-old bulls have thicker antlers.
•Four-year-old and older bulls typically have six points; antlers are thicker and longer each year.
•Eleven- or 12-year-old bulls often grow the heaviest antlers; after that age, the size of antlers generally diminishes.”
Moose are 6.5 to 7.5 feet tall, (one source says 5 1/2 to 7 1/2 feet at the shoulder) with antlers that spread 4 to 5 feet (record 6’9″) and can weigh up to 1,400 pounds (usually 1,000 male, 900 female (cow) .
NPS photo of moose in comparison to a SUV:
Both male and female bison 4-5 feet tall at their shoulder, 10-12 feet long, have a small beard, but only the male has a bushy forehead.
Yellowstone park says:
Q: How do you tell male from female bison?
A: A bull’s head is wider and shaped more like a triangle than the female bison; its ‘forehead’ fur is much thicker, as is the fur on its forelegs; and its beard is thicker. A cow’s horns are slightly more curved and slender than a bull’s. In addition, a cow’s shoulders are narrower than its hips while a male’s shoulders are broader than its hips.
In the NPS photo below, the female bison is on the left, the male on the right.
In this photo of a bison about to cross a road, note the size of the bison in comparison to the people and their cars. If the bison decided to change his direction of travel, or move quickly, people could have been injured.
Read about what may happen before a bison charges, including what people who were injured were doing before the bison charged.
A marmot 16 inches long plus a 6 1/2 inch tail and a pika 8 inches long on a trail, for a size comparison:
Sightings of bobcat, lynx or mountain lion (cougar) , are not common, but here are their faces for comparison:
and here is a bobcat on the grounds of a Yosemite National Park hotel:
A Yellowstone study found that cougars mostly eat elk, followed by mule deer, bighorn sheep, and pronghorn.
Mountain goats (5 foot long, 3 feet tall), black horns are much smaller than bighorn sheep (6 feet tall / 3 1/2 feet to shoulder):
Pronghorn 4 foot long, (can run 30 mph for 15 miles with spurts up to 70 mph, from the Smithsonian “communicate with each other visually by raising the mane on the back of the neck into a stiff brush and erecting the white hairs on their rump”)
A golden-mantled ground squirrel has stripes that stop before it’s neck, a chipmunk 5 inches to 4 1/2 inches, is a little smaller and has stripes across it’s back and up it’s head.
The coyote (25 inches tall, large ones up to 55 pounds) compares in size to a large family dog. One way to tell if what you see from a distance is a dog or a coyote is that when a coyote runs, it generally holds its tail down at an angle, and a dog runs with its tail up. We’ve read that Rocky Mountain coyotes are bigger than the ones we frequently see in Yosemite on our winter trips.
two photos of one coyote in Yellowstone:
And a coyote walking next to a swimming pool fence in Yosemite National Park:
A wolf, up to 35″ tall, is much bigger than a coyote or family dog, but it can be hard to tell at a distance, which is where you will most likely see one if at all. Wolves can weight 70-120 pounds, coyotes only 25-40.
Wolves run on the average 5 mph, or up to 35 mph.
Wolves can be coal black, creamy white and everything (gray, tan) in between. Coyotes are gray, tawny, buffy or reddish gray, with some orange on it’s tail and ears. A red fox has red fur with white-tipped tail, dark legs; slender, long snout. It has a bushier tail than a coyote.
Below a NPS drawing showing the size comparison of a wolf, coyote and a fox.
And another National Park Service drawing comparing the size and coloration of a fox (front), coyote (center), and wolf (back), by Michael Warner from a Yellowstone Park webpage
The coyote often holds his tail between his legs when running. His nose is more pointed than a wolf.
The coyotes have a narrow, triangular shaped head. A wolf has a more square, blocky head.
A red fox barks, but rarely howls/sings. Wolves and coyotes both sing long howls, but the wolf does not add yips/yaps. Yellowstone park notes that that wolves howl for “intrapack communication, advertising territory, coordinating social activities.” Denali park notes that “Wolves are noted for their distinctive howl, which they use as a form of communication. Biologists do not know all of the reasons why wolves howl, but they may do so before and after a hunt, to sound an alarm, and to locate other members of the pack when separated. Wolves howl more frequently in the evening and early morning, especially during winter breeding and pup rearing. Howling is also one way that packs warn other wolves to stay out of their territory.”
To print a wolf / coyote comparison go to:
and click on wolf versus coyote comparison
Coyote front prints are usually 2 3/4 inches in length or less, some large dog breeds can have prints as big as a wolf, wolves are usually 3 1/2 inches in length not including the claws.
The International Wolf Center tells us that “The biting capacity of a wolf is 1,000 to 1,500 pounds of pressure per square inch… In comparison, a German Shepard has a biting pressure of 750 pounds per square inch. A human has a much lower biting pressure of 300 pounds per square inch.”
First photo below of mollie’s wolfpack in Yellowstone: (in social situations like the first photo, the height the tail is carried generally relates to the social status of that wolf).
From a distance it can be hard to tell which small animal you see swimming. But each swims differently. River otters undulate through the water. One source says when a beaver swims, only his head shows above the water; muskrats show both their head and part of their back. Another source says that muskrats usually swim with their thin tails “snaking in the water behind them or arched out of the water; you never see a beaver’s tail as it swims.” Adult muskrats are the size of a football, their body about a foot long, beavers four times as big. Otters are 3 to 4 feet long, minks half that size.
Beavers use their tails as rudders as they swim, to slap the water when they want to warn other beavers they see something dangerous (like you, perhaps) and to help them stand up to reach for and chew branches.
Below is a beaver (see the lodge and one of the dams in the background)
The main differences between a grizzly and a black bear are:
Two photos below black bears and six of grizzlies are courtesy of NPS:
grizzlies have a dished, or concave face; black bears have a straight facial profile
grizzlies have a large hump of muscle above the shoulders (used for digging and running)
grizzly claws (long, for digging) are visible from a distance, black bears claws (short, curved for climbing) are not
grizzlies are bigger (males 300-700 pounds, black bears 210-315 pounds)
coloration in both is so variable, that it isn’t a good way to tell them apart. Black bears are not just black in color, they can be light, medium or dark brown, cinnamon/reddish or blond. Grizzlies can be any of the above, sometimes with silver-tipped guard hairs that give them their grizzled gray / silver appearance.
If you have reason to report a bear sighting, try to notice the color as described above, including any colors of patches on the chest or of girth bands. Be ready to describe the size. A two year old is about 1/2 to 3/4 the size of a female, a yearling about 1/4 to 1/2 the size of a female and the cub of the year is about 1/4 the size of a female. Was there an ear tag, radio collar or paint to identify the bear?
black bears are more likely to stalk a human than grizzlies, although this is quite rare
both can climb trees
grizzly bears can run 40 miles per hour
both hibernate, but sometimes awake during winter and leave their dens (occasionally some in Yosemite, for example, never do hibernate)
both have occasionally become too used to humans and/or human food and have had to be destroyed.
What do Grizzly bears sound like? Griz vocalizations description from Yellowstone Park “Grizzly bears sometimes vocalize when agitated or nervous.. . sounds of huffing, jaw-popping, and low growls are warnings that you’re too close.”
To watch a Grand Teton National park video comparing black bears and griz, go to
and click on Which Bear Did I See?
Check out a close encounter with a bear in Yellowstone park, by people who admitted they left their bear spray in the car and will never do so again:
This NPS image of a man spraying bear spray shows the comparison in size of a man and a very large bear:
See also: your safety in grizzly bear country
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The difference between a tundra swan and a trumpeter swan (8′ wingspan) is that the tundra swan has a yellow spot near the eye and the trumpeter swan has a thin pink stripe at the base of their upper mandible.
NPS photos of adult and juvenile Bald Eagles:
The juvenile Bald Eagle above will not get white head feathers until it is about 4 years old.
A note about feathers, courtesy of David Allen Sibley in Sibley’s Birding Basics. Numbers of feathers vary from 940 on a hummingird to 1,500-2,600 on a sparrow to 25,000 on a tundra swan. Feathers “commonly account for 15 % of the bird’s total body weight – about twice as much as it’s skeleton.”
Park rules say do not approach wildlife, stay 100 yards from bears or wolves and 25 yards from other wildlife including nesting birds. If you have an accidental, surprise or inadvertent closer encounter with wildlife you must remove yourself to those distances.
To visualize 100 yards, picture the length of a football field.
To visualize 25 yards, picture four car lengths, six kayak lengths or the width of an Olympic-sized pool like ours at the college.
See also: animal sign comparisons (how to use tracks and scat to distinguish species) grizzly:
Please do not handle scat. Wolf scat, for example, can transmit tapeworm eggs to humans.
Watch a Grand Teton National park video identifying and comparing animal tracks
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your safety in grizzly bear territory tells you what to do if you see a bear in the distance or a bear charges you and has info about Bear Pepper Sprays and what might happen before a bison charges.
NPS chart of where grizzly bears live in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (the blue outline) in 2008:
Grand Tetons biking has details about rare fatal (often preventable) encounters between bike riders and grizzlys.
This NPS historic photo collection shows people much too close to an elk:
For more actual incidents of injuries from animals, usually caused by approaching them too closely, go to: fatal, near fatal or close call incidents/accidents in camping, backpacking, climbing and mountaineering
Look for the BEARS, MOUNTAIN LION, BISON, ELK and MOOSE sections.
For details about our next club trip to Grand Teton National Park, go to: Grand Tetons.
Grand Tetons trip pages index has brief descriptions of most of the pages about this trip.
Hiking Advice has hot weather hiking advice, hiking logistics and the answer to the question: When is the best time of day to cross a mountain stream?
People often get too close to animals when they are trying to take a selfie.